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IS 15184 (2002, Reaffirmed 2010) 
Balls — Specification. ICS 43.150 




Jawaharlal Nehru 
'Step Out From the Old to the New" 



Bicycles — Steel 



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Satyanarayan Gangarara Pitroda 
Invent a New India Using Knowledge 



Bhartrhari — Nitisatakam 
''Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen" 




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(Reaffirmed 2010) 

1815184:2002 

i-\\i{hQ\ — w^ w— RRifc 

Indian Standard 
BICYCLES — STEEL BALLS — SPECIFICATION 



ICS 43.150 



© BIS 2002 

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG 
NEW DELHI 110002 



Aui^ust 2002 Price Group 4 



Bicycles Sectional Committee, TED 16 



FOREWORD 

This Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft fmalized by the Bicycles 
Sectional Committee had been approved by the Transport Engineering Division Council. 

This standard is one of a series of standards on bicycles and their components. 

Steel balls find a wide usage as rolling elements in engineering applications and are used directly between 
surfaces when it is desirable to reduce friction. Carbon-chrome steel balls are widely being used in rolling 
bearings. With the widespread use of high carbon steel balls by the bicycle manufacturers in our country, a need 
was felt to prepare this standard to cover steel balls made from both types of materials. 

The composition of the Committee responsible for the formulation of this standard is given in Annex D. 

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, 
observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with 
IS 2 : 1 960 * Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)'. The number of significant places retained in the 
rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. 



IS 15184 : 2002 



Indian Standard 
BICYCLES — STEEL BALLS — SPECIFICATION 



1 SCOPE 

1.1 This standard lays down the diameters and other 
requirements for steel balls used for bicycle and bicycle 
components. 

1.2 This standard does not cover corrosion-resistant 
steel balls. 

2 REFERENCES 

The following Indian Standards contain provisions, 
which through reference in this text, constitute 
provisions of the standards. At the time of publication, 
the editions indicated were valid. All standards are 
subject to revision, and parties to agreements based 
on this standard are encouraged to investigate the 
possibility of applying the most recent editions of the 
standards indicated below: 

IS No, Title 

1586 : 2000 Method for Rockwell hardness test 
for metallic material (Scales A-B- 
C.D-E-F-G-H-K 15N, 30N, 45N, 
15T, 30T and 45T) {third revision) 

4398 : 1994 Carbon-chromium steel for the 
manufacture of balls, rollers and 
bearing races — Specification 
{second revision) 

5517 : 1993 Steels for hardening and tempering 

— Specification {second revision) 

3 TERMINOLOGY 

For the purpose of this standard, the following 
definitions shall apply, 

3.1 Nominal Ball Diameter — The diameter value 
which is used for the purpose of general identification 
of ball size. 

3.2 Single Diameter of a Ball — - The distance between 
two parallel planes tangent to the surface of the ball. 

3.3 Mean Diameter of a Ball — The arithmetic mean 
of the largest and the smallest actual single diameter 
of the ball. 

3.4 Ball Diameter Variation — The difference 
between the largest and the smallest actual single 
diameter of one ball. 

3.5 Deviation from Spherical Form — The greatest 
radial distance in any radial plane between a sphere 
circumscribed around the ball surface and any point 
of the ball surface. 



3.6 Hardness — The measure of resistance to 
penetration as determined by specific methods. 

3.7 Unit Container — An individual container which 
contains balls of the same material and nominal 

diameter. 

4 MATERIAL 

4.1 The bicycle steel balls shall be manufactured from 
carbon-chromium steel of chemical composition 
conforming to any grade of IS 4398 or carbon steel of 
chemical composition conforming to grade 30C8, 
35C8, 40C8, 45C8, 50C8 and 55C8 of IS 5517. 

4.2 The material shall be free from pipes, seams, 
laminations, excessive inclusions of non-metallic 
impurities and other defects which may render it 
unsuitable for the purpose intended. 

5 DIAMETERS 



For bicycles, the ball diameters shall be as given below: 

Nominal Ball 

Diameter 

mm 



Actual 

Diameter 

mm 

3,175 
3.969 
4.762 
6.350 



3 
4 
5 
6 

6 TESTS 

6.1 Visual Inspection 

6.1.1 Balls shall be visually inspected under diffused 
light. There shall be no soft spots on the balls. 

6.L2 When checked under microscope, bails shall be 
free from cracks, pits, rust and indications of soft spots 
and other harmful defects. 

6.2 Diameters 

6.2.1 The diameter of balls shall be determined by 
comparative measurements with the master balls as 
detailed in Annex A. 

6.2.2 Information regarding the measurement of the 
deviation from spherical form is given in Annex B. 

6.2.3 Maximum ball diameter variation and maximum 
deviation from spherical form shall be ±1 micron(^0. 



18 15184:2002 



6.3 Hardness 

6.3-1 The hardness of the finished balls shall be 
between 60 and 67 HRC (700 to 900 VPN) as measured 
on parallel flats {see IS 1586). Balls in any lot or 
unit container shall have a uniform hardness within a 
tolerance of ±5 HRC. 

6.3.2 In view of the difficulty in producing parallel 
flats, hardness shall be measured on the curved surface 
of the ball and a correction as given in Table 1 shall 
be added to the reading obtained. 

6.4 Crushing Load Test 

6,4.1 The crushing load shall be determined by holding 



one ball between two others and subjecting them to 
increasing load till the ball is crushed. 

6.4.2 The method of test consists of holding three balls 
in contact with each other in a pair of V-guides and 
holding the balls vertically under a suitable loading 
machine. The slight pressure will hold the bails 
vertically in position. The V-guides shall then be 
removed and the load increased gradually at a rate of 
1 960 to 5 880 N/sec till the ball crushes. The amount 
of load as recorded at this point shall be regarded as 
the crushing load (see Fig. 1) and shall not be less 
than the values specified for the corresponding size of 
ball in Table 2. 



Table 1 Correction to be Added to Rockwell Hardness HRC Values 
Obtained on Spherical Surface 

(Clause 6.3.2) 



Nominal 












Hardness 


Values ( HRC ) 












Ball 
Diameter 

mm 




























55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


3 


6,1 


5.8 


5.6 


4.8 


4.6 


4,4 


4.2 


4.0 


3.8 


3.6 


2.8 


— 


— 


4 


5.6 


5.3 


5.1 


4.4 


4.2 


4.0 


3.8 


3.6 


3.4 


3.2 


2.5 


— 


— 


5 


5.i 


4.8 


4.6 


4,0 


3.8 


3.6 


3.4 


3.2 


3.0 


2.8 


2.3 


— 


— 


6 


4,1 


3.8 


3.6 


3.3 


3.1 


2.9 


2.7 


2.5 


2.3 


2.1 


1.8 


1.6 


1.5 



BASE 



LOAD 



FpAME FOR 
CRUSHING LOAD TEST 




GUIDES FOR 
ALIGNMENT 



Fig. 1 Crushing Load Test 

2 



18 15184:2002 



Table 2 Crushing Load of Bicycle Steel Balls 
(3 Balls System) 

(Clauses 6.4.2 and C-2.4) 



Nomina! 


Minimum 


a) 


Diameter of Bali 


Crushing Load 


mm 


N 


b) 


3 


5 390 


c) 


4 


8 430 


5 


12 100 


d) 


6 
IN -0.10! 972 kgf. 


21 300 


e) 



6.4.3 In view of the fact that balls sometimes shatter 
with explosion, precautions shall be taken for testing 
personnePs protection against accident. 

7 SAMPLING 

Unless otherwise agreed upon between the purchaser 
and the manufacturer, the sampling plan and criteria 
for conformity given in Annex C shall be followed. 

8 PACKING 

Balls shall be suitably packed to avoid any damage 
during storage or transportation as per agreement 
between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 



9 MARKING 

9.1 Each unit container shall be legibly and indelibly 
marked with the following; 

Manufacturer's name or trade-mark, if any; 

Nominal ball diameter; 

Batch Number; 

Number of balls; and 

Material of balls (carbon-chrome steel or 

carbon steel). 

9.2 BIS Certification Marking 

The material may also be marked with the Standard 
Mark. 

9.2,1 The use of the Standard Mark is governed by 
the provisions of the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 
1 986 and the Rules and Regulations made thereunder. 
The details of conditions under which the licence for 
the use of Standard Mark may be granted to the 
manufacturers or producers maybe obtained from the 
Bureau of Indian Standards. 



ANNEX A 
{Clause 62 A) 

MEASUREMENT OF BALL DIAMETER 



A-1 All comparative measurements shall be made with 
such instruments and gauging methods which can give 
an accuracy of results within one-fifth of the standard 
tolerance of the balls or within 0.05 ji, whichever is 

larger. 

A-2 rhe master balls shall be made of suitable steel 
having a hardness of 64 HRC or higher, with 
permissible diameter variation of one-tenth of the 
diameter tolerance per ball applicable to the particular 
grade or 0.05 ^ whichever is larger. The calibrated 
diameter of the master ball shall be defined as the 
average of at least twenty randomly oriented diameter 
readings and shall have an accuracy equal to within 
plus and minus the magnitude of diameter variation 
of the master ball or ±0.08 \i whichever is larger. 
Corrections shall then be applied to bring the measured 



values to zero contact pressure and an ambient 
temperature of 20°C. 

A-3 Materials used to make gauge contacts shall be of 
at least the same hardness as the ball measured. Ail 
gauge contacts shall be fiat or provided with a convex 
curvature having a radius of at least 3 mm. Pressure 
at any gauge contact shall not exceed 100 g. This value 
includes effect of the weight of the balls under test. 

A-4 The gauge pressure and temperature shall be 
maintained the same for the master ball and the ball 
under test. When the ball under test differs in material 
from the master ball, measurements shall be corrected 
to zero contact pressure and an ambient temperature 
of20^C. 

A-5 All determinations of diameter and tolerances 



18 15184:2002 



shall be based on 10 measurements taken at random 
orientation on each ball in a sample. 

A-6 Specific diameter tolerance shall be checked by 
computing the average of 10 measurements of each 
ball and determining the range of these averages for 



the sample of balls drawn from the same unit container. 

A-7 Compliance to basic diameter tolerance shall be 
determined by using all individual diameter 
measurements of balls drawn from the supply. 



ANNEXE 

(Clause 6.2.2) 

MEASUREMENT OF DEVIATION FROM SPHERICAL FORM 



B-1 In practice it is usually measured by a numerical 
evaluation of the ball profile, in two or three equatorial 
planes at 90° to each other, as recorded oii a polar 
chart which shows the measured profiles. The 
measured profile is graphical representation of the 
balTs radial deviations, highly magnified, which are 
recorded as either the ball or a contacting stylus in 
precisely rotated about the ball axis. The accuracy of 
spindle rotation and the sensitivity of the transducer 
shall be within 0.025 fim. Because of the high radial 
magnification some care shall be taken in interpreting 
the polar charts and there are several commonly used 
procedures for finding the radial separation of the 
measured profile from a perfect circle. The minimum 
circumscribed circle method is relatively simple and 
is generally satisfactory for all profiles as is also the 
assumption that two or three equatorial profiles at 90° 
to each other are a good indication of deviation from 
spherical form. 



B.2 METHOD 

MEASUREMENT 



USING VEE-BLOCK 



Deviation from spherical form in steel balls for bicycle 
may result in equatorial profiles having two or more 
waves or radial deviations from a perfect circle. 



Measuring single diameter of a ball will give a good 
indication of out-of-roundness for odd numbers of 
waves, it is practical to use Vee-block measuring 
device, arranged as shown in Fig. 2, to measure the 
out-of-roundness of the profile having odd number of 
waves. The angle of the Vee has a pronounced 
influence on the indicator reading and no one angle is 
adequate for all waviness. The most practical Vee 
angles appearto be 90° and 120° and the magnification 
factor for the ratio of the indicator reading to the actual 
wave height of deviation from spherical form is shown 
in Table 3. To determine the deviation from spherical 
form, divide the indicator reading by this factor, 

B-2.1 When the number of waves in the profile is 
unknown, which is most usual, readings in three planes 
at 90° to each other shall be taken on a two-point gauge 
and on both the 90° and 120° Vee-gauges. Dividing 
the highest reading obtained on either Vee-gauge by a 
factor of 2 to determine the deviation from spherical 
form for odd numbers of waves is considered 
acceptable. 

The point of stylus ball contact shall be on axis A-A 
which is the bisector of the Vee and axis B-B which is 
the axis of the ball; also the spindle of the indicator 
shall be in alignment with axes A-A and B-B. 



Table 3 Magnincatton Factor 

(Gauge Reading/Deviation from Spherical Form) 

(Clause B-2) 



Vee 










Number of Waves 










Angle 












B^V 












3 


5 


7 


9 


11 


13 


15 


17 


19 


21 


9(r 


2 


2 








2 


2 








2 


2 


120'' 


1 


2 


2 


I 








1 


2 


2 


1 



IS 15184 : 2002 





B 



Fig. 2 Vee-Block Measuring Device 



ANNEX C 

{Clause 7) 

SAMPLING OF STEEL BALLS AND CRITERIA FOR CONFORMITY 



C-1 SCALE OF SAMPLING 

C-1.1 Lot 

All balls in consignment belonging to the same size, 
material and manufactured under similar conditions 
of production shall constitute a lot. 

C-L2 Balls shall be selected and examined from each 
lot separately for ascertaining their conformity to the 
requirements of this standard. 

C-U The number of balls to be selected from a lot 
shall depend on the size of the lot and shall be in 
accordance with col 1 and 2 of Table 4. The selection 
of these balls from the lot shall be done according 

toC-L4. 

C-1. 4 In the first stage, 25 percent or n containers 
(see col 2 of Table 4), whichever is less, shall be 
selected at random from all the containers in the lot. 
In the second stage a sample ofn' balls shall be taken 
by picking at random equal number of balls, as far as 
possible, from each of the selected containers. 

C-2 NUMBER OF TESTS AND CRITERIA FOR 
CONFORMITY 

C-2.1 Each of the balls selected according to C-L3 
and C-1.4 shall be tested for all the requirements of 
this standard except crushing load test. A ball failing 
to meet any one or more of these requirements shall 
be regarded as defective. The lot shall be considered 



as conforming to these requirements if the number of 
defectives in the sample does not exceed the 
permissible number of defectives given in col 3 of 
Table 4. 

C-2, 2 For crushing load test, a sub-sample of w given 
in col 4 of Table 4 shall be taken at random. These 
balls may be selected from the bails selected according, 
to C-L3 and C-1.4. The m balls shall be divided into 
groups of 3 balls each and on each group of 3 balls, 
the crushing load test shall be carried out in 
accordance with 6.4. 

C-2.3 From the results of crushing load tests, the mean 

and the range shall be calculated as follows: 



.r;^ Sum of the test results 
Mean {X) ■ 



Number of test results 



Range (/?) = Difference between the highest and the 
lowest value obtained from the test 
results, 

C-2. 4 The lot shall be considered to conform to the 
requirement on crushing load if ( x - 0.4 R) is greater 
than or equal to the minimum crushing load specified 
in Table 2 for the particular ball size. 

C-2. 5 The lot shall be considered as conforming to 
the requirements of the standard if the conditions 
mentioned in C-2.1 and C-2.4 are fulfilled. 



18 15184:2002 



Table 4 Sampling Size and Criteria for Conformity 

(Clauses C-1.3, C-1.4, C-2.1 andC-22) 



No. of Balls 


For Requirements Other than 




No. of Balls 


in theSub-ssimpte 


in the Lot 


Crushing Load Test 




for Crushing Load Test 




^rf"^^ 






















No.ofBallsinthe 


Permissible 










Sample 


Momber of Defectives 






N 


n 


a 






m 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 






(4) 


Up to 500 


15 


1 






6 


501 to 1 000 


20 


I 






6 


1 001 ,,3 000 


32 


2 






9 


3 001 „ 10 000 


50 


3 






12 


10 00 1 ,,35 000 


80 


5 






\5 


35 001 „ 150 000 


125 


7 






18 


150 001 ,,500 000 


200 


10 






21 


500 001 and over 


315 


14 






24 



1815184:2002 



ANNEX D 

{Foreword) 

COMMITTEE COMPOSITION 

Bicycles Sectional Committee, TED 14 



Organizaiion 
Hero Cycle Ltd, Ludhiana 

Atlas Cycle Industries Ltd, Sonepat 

Avery Cycle Industries Ltd, Chandigarh 

Avon Cycles Ltd, Ludhiana 

Bhogal Sons (Regd.), Ludhiana 

Bicycle and Sewing Machines, R&D Centre, Ludhiana 

Deptt. ot Industrial Policy and Promotion, Ministry of Industry, 
New Delhi 

Dewan Rubber Industries Ltd, Meerut 
Director of Industries, Government of Haryana, Chandigarh 
Director of Industries, Government of Punjab, Chandigarh 
Directorate General of Supplies and Disposals, New Delhi 

Eastman Industries, Ludhiana 

Export Inspection Council of India, Kolkata 

Hartex Rubber Limited, Hyderabad 

J. K. Cycles, Ludhiana 

Kular Cycle Industries, Ludhiana 

Ministry of Defence [ DGQA(V) ], New Delhi 

Ralson (India) Ltd, Ludhiana 

Sadem Industries, Ludhiana 

Super Cycle International, Ludhiana 

T. I. Cycles of India, Chennai 

The Roadmastcr Industries of India Ltd, Rajpura 

United Cycle & Parts Manufacturers Association, Ludhiana 

BIS Directorate General 



Representative (s) 

Shr] S. K. Rai (Chairman) 

SiiRi BRiJMOtiAN Lal [Alternate) 

Simi Gkush Kapijr 

Si !Ri AsHOK KuMAK (Alternate) 

ShRI HARCIiAR/\N SiNGH 

Shm Ashwani Kumar (Alternate) 

Si iri Onkar Singh P ahwa 

Shri Rishi pAJiWA (Alternate) 

Shri HarinderP. Bhogal 

Shri Naginder Singh Bhogal (Alternate) 

General Manager 

Shri Siwmsher Singh (Alternate) 

Shri Sushil Kumar 

Shri S. S. Gupta (Alternate) 

Shrj VrvEK Dewan 

Shri C. K. Saxena (Alternate) 

ShRIR.N. GOYAL 

Shri Sunil Chopra (Alternate) 

General Manager ( R&D Centre ) 
Sr. Tech. Officer (Alternate) 

ShriI.C. Khanna 

Shri Jagdeep Singla 

Shri Rajiv Raizada 

Shri T. S. Narula (Alternate) 

Shri K. Subramanun 

Shr! Rav[ndra Pant (Alternate) 

Shri Jognder Kumar 

Shri Ajrr Singh 

Shri Darshan Singh (Alternate) 

Shri Kuk Pillai 

Shri S. P. Dekale (Alternate) 

Shri T. R. Kukreja 

Shri Gulshan Sehgal (Alternate) 

Shri Satish Kumar Dhanda 

Shri Navratt/W Chopra 

Shri M. SHANKiuaiMvi 

Shri S. S adish Kumar (A Itemate) 

ShriSubashGdyal 

Shri T. R. Timtai (Alternate) 

President 

Secretary (Alternate) 

Shri A. R. Gulati, Director ( TED ) 
[Representing Director General (Ex-offlcid)] 



Member-Secretary 

Shri J. M. Khanna 

Deputy Director ( Transport Engineering ), BIS 



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harnnonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods 
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implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations. 
Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications), BIS. 

Review of Indian Standards 

Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed 
periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are 
needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision. Users of Indian Standards 
should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue of 
'BIS Catalogue' and 'Standards; Monthly Additions'. 

This Indian Standard has been developed from Doc : No. TED 16 (199). 



Amendments Issued Since Publication 



Amend No. 



Date of Issue 



Text Affected 



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